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Brian Westenhaus

Brian Westenhaus

Brian is the editor of the popular energy technology site New Energy and Fuel. The site’s mission is to inform, stimulate, amuse and abuse the…

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Vertical Axis Wind Turbines Redefined by Machine Learning

  • EPFL researchers developed optimal pitch profiles for vertical-axis wind turbines using a genetic learning algorithm.
  • The new pitch profiles resulted in a 200% increase in turbine efficiency and a 77% reduction in structure-threatening vibrations.
  • VAWTs have advantages over traditional horizontal-axis wind turbines, including reduced noise and wildlife-friendliness.
Machine learning

EPFL (École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) researchers have used a genetic learning algorithm to identify optimal pitch profiles for the blades of vertical-axis wind turbines. Vertical-axis wind turbines with their high energy potential, have until now been vulnerable to strong gusts of wind.

The explanatory open access paper has been published Nature Communications.

When you consider today’s industrial wind turbine, you likely picture the windmill design, technically known as a horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT). But the very first wind turbines, which were developed in the Middle East around the 8th century for grinding grain, were vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWT), meaning they spun perpendicular to the wind, rather than parallel.

Due to their slower rotation speed, VAWTs are less noisy than HAWTs and achieve greater wind energy density, meaning they need less space for the same output both on- and off-shore. The blades are also more wildlife-friendly: because they rotate laterally, rather than slicing down from above, they are easier for birds to avoid.

With these advantages, why are VAWTs largely absent from today’s wind energy market? As Sébastien Le Fouest, a researcher in the School of Engineering Unsteady Flow Diagnostics Lab (UNFOLD) explains, it comes down to an engineering problem – air flow control – that he believes can be solved with a combination of sensor technology and machine learning. In the paper recently published in Nature Communications, Le Fouest and UNFOLD head Karen Mulleners describe two optimal pitch profiles for VAWT blades, which achieve a 200% increase in turbine efficiency and a 77% reduction in structure-threatening vibrations.

EPFL’s experimental VAWT blade Image Credit: © UNFOLD EPFL CC BY SA. Click the press release link for more and larger images.

Le Fouest noted, “Our study represents, to the best of our knowledge, the first experimental application of a genetic learning algorithm to determine the best pitch for a VAWT blade.”

Turning an Achilles’ heel into an advantage

 Le Fouest explained that while Europe’s installed wind energy capacity is growing by 19 gigawatts per year, this figure needs to be closer to 30 GW to meet the UN’s 2050 objectives for carbon emissions.

“The barriers to achieving this are not financial, but social and legislative – there is very low public acceptance of wind turbines because of their size and noisiness,” he said.

Despite their advantages in this regard, VAWTs suffer from a serious drawback: they only function well with moderate, continuous air flow. The vertical axis of rotation means that the blades are constantly changing orientation with respect to the wind. A strong gust increases the angle between air flow and blade, forming a vortex in a phenomenon called dynamic stall. These vortices create transient structural loads that the blades cannot withstand.

To tackle this lack of resistance to gusts, the researchers mounted sensors onto an actuating blade shaft to measure the air forces acting on it. By pitching the blade back and forth at different angles, speeds, and amplitudes, they generated series of ‘pitch profiles’. Then, they used a computer to run a genetic algorithm, which performed over 3500 experimental iterations. Like an evolutionary process, the algorithm selected for the most efficient and robust pitch profiles, and recombined their traits to generate new and improved ‘offspring’.

This approach allowed the researchers not only to identify two pitch profile series that contribute to significantly enhanced turbine efficiency and robustness, but also to turn the biggest weakness of VAWTs into a strength.

“Dynamic stall – the same phenomenon that destroys wind turbines – at a smaller scale can actually propel the blade forward. Here, we really use dynamic stall to our advantage by redirecting the blade pitch forward to produce power,” Le Fouest explained. “Most wind turbines angle the force generated by the blades upwards, which does not help the rotation. Changing that angle not only forms a smaller vortex – it simultaneously pushes it away at precisely the right time, which results in a second region of power production downwind.”

The Nature Communications paper represents Le Fouest’s PhD work in the UNFOLD lab. Now, he has received a BRIDGE grant from the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) and Innosuisse to build a proof-of-concept VAWT. The goal is to install it outdoors, so that it can be tested as it responds in real time to real-world conditions.

“We hope this air flow control method can bring efficient and reliable VAWT technology to maturity so that it can finally be made commercially available,” Le Fouest said.



One does certainly hope this development has the wherewithal to replace a lot of those dangerous ugly and noisy HAWTs. While wind is a notorious intermittent power source the industry has a lot of momentum that sucks up immense amounts of ratepayer and taxpayer money. Stamping out rent seeking plans like wind turbines could serve as an example of how terribly an economy and its citizens are damaged by political enforced rent making schemes.

It would be great of the developers could say the technology can stand economically on its own. But the press release makes no such comments.  The reality is these can only supplement a bit when the winds blows.

By Brian Westenhaus via New Energy and Fuel

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Leave a comment
  • DoRight Deikins on May 17 2024 said:
    Not sure what you are saying as to: «Stamping out rent seeking plans like wind turbines could serve as an example of how terribly an economy and its citizens are damaged by political enforced rent making schemes.» How are wind turbines rent seeking plans?

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