Like many countries in Africa, Ethiopia is investigating the countryâs renewable energy potential.
While recent hydroelectric projects, including the 1,870 megawatt $2.2 billion Gilgel Gibe III dam on the Omo River and the proposed 5,000 megawatt $5 billion Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, formerly known as the Millennium Dam, on the Blue Nile have attracted international criticism, Ethiopiaâs Ministry of Water and Energy Sector Mapping and Database Development office has determined that the countryâs wind potential could generate 10,000 megawatts annually, which has not yet been developed.
The countryâs wind potential was included in the first phase of a $251 million project, designed to produce a comprehensive and updated energy sector data set for the entire country, which was submitted to the Ministry of Water and Energy on 19 October. The study also investigated the countryâs solar energy potential. The first phase of the project, which took 16 months, developed a web based and Geographical Information System (GIS) enabled energy database.
Germanyâs Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH, (Sociert for international Cooperation), most of whose work is commissioned by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, financed the Ministry of Water and Energyâs Energy Sector Mapping and Database Development study.
The project, which commenced in May 2010, was overseen by a national steering committee comprised of Ethiopiaâs Ministry of Water and Energy, Ministry of Agriculture and Central Statistics Authority, the Ethiopian Electric Agency and Ethiopian Electric Power Cooperation and Germanyâs Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH Energy Coordination Office. The project was the second study of Ethiopiaâs national energy sector, following on an earlier one conducted by an Italian company in the 1980s. The compiled database will allow for the production of multiple data-based energy maps based on data covering electricity, biomass, renewable energy and hydrocarbon resources.
Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH Energy Coordination Office deputy director Samson Tolessa said, "There is no organized data about the energy potential of the country. The cost of identifying this potential by themselves is one of the reasons that might discourage investors." Tolessa added that as the countryâs potential areas for power generation are clearly indicated on the energy map, it will attract private investors to engage in Ethiopiaâs nascent renewable energy sector and noted that the second phase of the project will be conducted by the same consultants at an estimated cost of $1.2 million.
As with most African countries, where overall it is estimated that only about 25 percent of the population is connected to electricity grids, Ethiopia has relied heavily on biomass to meet both its rural and urban energy needs. The dependence on wood and agricultural wastes for fuel has inexorably led to deforestation and desertification because of a lack of soil rehabilitation projects.
Currently hydropower is Ethiopiaâs predominant source of electricity, which up to now has mitigated developing data about the potential of other alternative sources for power generation such as wind and solar power. According to energy analysts, Ethiopia has a hydropower potential to generate over 260 terrawatt hours of electricity annually, Africaâs second largest potential after the Democratic Republic of Congo. Of Ethiopiaâs current total electricity production, 98 percent is generated from hydropower and only seven megawatts from geothermal power, despite geothermalâs estimated potential of 5,000 megawatts.
The countryâs conventional electricity supply, currently produced by the centralized energy production authority includes hydroelectric power plants and engine-driven generators, but suffers from inequitable distribution and also insufficient to meet the populaceâs economic needs. The Ethiopian government accordingly is keen to advance the countryâs electrical capabilities as quickly as possible.
The Ministry of Water and Energyâs Energy Sector Mapping and Database Development study determined that Ethiopiaâs eastern lowlands and rift valley are areas of the country with the greatest potential for generating wind power. In the lowlands, the highest wind speed recorded in August is 10.5 meters per second and the lowest recorded velocity last month was two meters per second.
Hampering the countryâs development of wind power up to now,Â the Ministry of Water and Energyâs Energy Sector Mapping and Database Development observed âMost of the countryâs metrological stations being designed for aviation navigation purposes and not energy data recording have led to misleading assertions that the country does not have sufficient wind potential,â adding that although Ethiopia has the potential to generate more than 10,000 megawatts of electricity annually from wind power, it currently only generates 7.3 megawatts.
So, Ethiopiaâs future has now been officially evaluated as both windy and sunny.
The only thing missing is money.
By. John C.K. Daly of Oilprice.com