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Yale Global

Yale Global

YaleGlobal Online is a publication of the Whitney and Betty MacMillan Center for International and Area Studies at Yale. The magazine explores the implications of…

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Turkey’s Unlikely Energy Allies

Turkey Russia pipeline

Turkey, a functioning democracy and NATO’s only Muslim-majority member, was often presented as a model for the autocratic Arab Middle East by the United States. When the Arab Spring buffeted the Middle East, Turkey’s leader Recep Tayyip Erdogan saw an opportunity to actively promote this idea among the protestors in Arab autocracies. But the Arab Spring soon turned into winter, and Erdogan’s relationship with NATO underwent a remarkable change. While retaining its NATO membership, Turkey has become part of the Russia-led triad engaged in peacemaking in the Syrian civil war outside the purview of the United Nations. To the alarm of its NATO partners, Turkey decided to purchase Russian S-400 missiles. In addition, it is central to the TurkStream pipeline project that will carry Russian gas through Turkey to southern European destinations.

The key to understanding this phenomenon is to examine the Turkish Republic’s geopolitics and economics, singly or jointly.

Domestically, the aborted military coup in Turkey in July 2016 was a defining moment in the republic’s foreign policy. As the first foreign leader to congratulate Erdogan for crushing the coup, Russian President Vladimir Putin won the Turkish leader’s heartfelt gratitude. Iran’s Foreign Minister Muhammad Javad Zarif had tweeted a message even earlier, during the initial moves by the rebellious general: “Stability and democracy in Turkey are paramount.” In a follow-up telephone conversation with Erdogan, Iran’s President Hassan Rouhani told him that the coup attempt was “a test to identify your domestic and foreign friends and enemies.” Related: First Ever Russian LNG Cargo Arrives In The U.S.

With a population of nearly 80 million with steadily rising living conditions, Turkey has urgent need of a dependable supply of natural gas. Aside from lignite coal, Turkey has no hydrocarbon deposits. Its main sources of gas are Russia and Iran, contributing respectively 60 and 30 percent of the total, with the rest coming from Azerbaijan. There is a direct correlation between living standards and energy consumption. Because natural gas is mostly used for cooking in Turkey, its annual consumption reflects living standards

Russia’s state-owned Gazprom had become a supplier to several European nations pumped through a pipeline laid across Ukraine. To reduce its almost total dependence on Ukraine for its gas exports, Moscow came up with a plan – South Stream – to transport gas to other parts of Europe. This project advanced until the Kremlin’s capture of the Crimean Peninsula of Ukraine in February 2014, when the European Union imposed economic sanctions on Russia. This turn of event opened the door to Russo-Turkish economic cooperation. In December, Putin cancelled the South Stream project, replacing it with the $13.74 billion TurkStream gas pipeline that by 2020 will carry Russian gas to southern Europe via Bulgaria. This involved laying a pipeline under the Black Sea to emerge in Western Turkey 900 kilometers southwest to carry 15.75 billion cubic meters of gas to Europe annually. A twin pipeline was planned to deliver gas sold to Turkey.

A spat between Moscow and Ankara – when Turkey shot down a Russian jet fighter in its airspace near the Syrian border in November 2015 – did not disrupt the massive project. Russia limited its response to curtailing trade with Turkey. The following June, Turkey apologized for downing a Russian warplane which had inadvertently strayed into its airspace. Soon after receiving a congratulatory call from Putin after the abortive July coup, Erdogan flew to St. Petersburg and publicly thanked his Russian counterpart. In response, Putin relaxed trade restrictions.

Erdogan who had earlier joined efforts to depose Assad also moderated his opposition to the Syrian regime of Bashar al-Assad. Instead, he focused on blocking the creation of a Kurdish enclave, planned by the Washington-backed Kurdish militia operating as the Syrian Democratic Forces along the Turkish border. That gave Putin an opening to co-opt Turkey with the aim of ending the Syrian civil war.

After hosting a meeting with Erdogan and Rouhani in Sochi on 22 November, Putin said, “The militants in Syria have sustained a decisive blow and now there is a realistic chance to end the multi-year civil war.” He had conferred with Assad two days earlier. Notably on 12 November, Turkey announced signing a contract for the purchase of Russian S-400 missiles, ignoring the disapproval of other NATO members, particularly the United States.

In mid-December Putin and Erdogan suggested the Kazakh capital of Astana as a venue for conducting peace talks for Syria. On 20 December, Iran’s Foreign Minister Zarif joined them at Astana. Reversing past policies, Iran and Turkey found themselves on the same side in the Syrian crisis.

Energy need: Turkey's trade partners for 2016 include diverse import and export nations; Russia's Turk Stream pipeline could bring changes in 2020 (Source: GlobalEdge)

Turkey had been among the first countries to recognize Islamic Republic of Iran. Still its “Neither East nor West” foreign policy in the 1980s led to cool relations between the two neighbors. In the wake of the Soviet Union’s disintegration in 1991, five Muslim-majority Soviet republics – Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan – tried to find a new identity. Washington urged them to emulate the Turkish model of secular democracy with a multi-party system and shun Iran’s Islamist model. This advice held until June 1996 when Necmettin Erbakan, leader of the Islamic Welfare Party, became Turkish prime minister. Two months later he defied Washington’s 1996 Iran-Libya Sanctions Act by signing a $23 billion gas deal during his visit to Tehran. Turkey was to start importing Iranian gas by 1999 and continue doing so for the next 20 years in increased volumes. Though the Turkish military forced Erbakan to resign in 1997, this deal remained intact. Related: China’s Final Frontier – Introducing The “Polar Silk Road”

With the electoral victory of Turkey’s Justice and Development Party – Adalet ve Kalk?nma Partisi, or AKP, a moderate successor of the Welfare Party – in November 2002, diplomatic relations between the two neighbors improved. In 2009, Ankara invested up to $4 billion in phases 6 and 7 of Iran's South Pars gas field with reserves of 14 trillion cubic meters of gas, or 8 percent of the global total.

There have been periodic disagreements. When Turkey hosted the establishment of a NATO missile shield in September 2011, Iran’s President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad claimed that the shield was an American plot to protect Israel from counterattack should Israel target Iran's nuclear facilities. Turkish Defense Minister Ismet Yilmaz retorted that the system’s aim was to secure Europe as well as Turkey. In the Syrian civil war that began in 2012, Turkey and Iran backed opposite camps. When Saudi Arabia intervened militarily in Yemen’s civil war in March 2015, Erdogan said in an interview with France 24 TV: “We support Saudi Arabia’s intervention in Yemen,” adding that “Iran and the terrorist groups must withdraw” from the nation.

Yet he undertook a pre-planned visit on 1 April to Tehran where he signed eight economic cooperation agreements with Iran. He lamented the fact that the target of $30 billion two-way trade had become stuck at $14 billion and hoped for a pickup with the lifting of sanctions on Iran. But mutual trade in 2016 fell to $9.67 billion. He met Rouhani and, during a joint press conference, he addressed his host as “my brother,” emphasizing that Turkey and Iran should join hands to bring a peaceful outcome to the Yemeni crisis. Accompanied by Rouhani, Erdogan met with Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei and proposed joint mediation efforts by Iran and Turkey in the region. Since then the Turkey-Iran entente has strengthened. In June 2017, in the crisis created by Riyadh to isolate Qatar diplomatically and economically, Iran and Turkey allied actively to help Qatar.


In all three cases, economic interests were paramount. Iran shares the gigantic Pars gas field with Qatar, and Turkey’s large construction companies help build stadiums for the 2022 FIFA World Cup tournaments.

By Yale Global Online

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Leave a comment
  • Douglas Houck on January 31 2018 said:
    Interesting article and Yale Global is generally pretty accurate, but on this one there is one mistake and a very large piece of information that is not reported that leads to a wrong conclusion.

    First, the mistake is minor, but Russia shut down the Turkish Stream after Turkey shot down a Russian jet and did not restart it until after the coup.

    Second, the big missing piece which explains most of the recent change of heart from Turkey (Erdogan). Erdogan did not change his position on Russia because President Putin congratulated him.

    "Domestically, the aborted military coup in Turkey in July 2016 was a defining moment in the republic’s foreign policy. As the first foreign leader to congratulate Erdogan for crushing the coup, Russian President Vladimir Putin won the Turkish leader’s heartfelt gratitude."

    That's ridiculous.

    Based on reports from the Iranian newsagency FARS, Russia/Putin intercepted radio communications between the coup participants at the Incirlik airbase, and gave President Erdogan a heads up, saving his life. Iran is also reported to have given Erdogan a heads up.
    see: http://theduran.com/reports-russian-tip-off-erdogan-may-true/

    Now neither Russia nor Iran particularly likes Turkey/Erdogan but both wanted an ending of regime change that keeps occuring in the Middle East. President Erdogan was grateful to President Putin for saving his life and one of the first things done was to restart the Turkish Stream.

    What cooled President Erdogan to the US was that even if the US wasn't behind the coup, they have a large presence at Incirlik and should have intercepted the same radio communications but never told him about it.

    It wasn't about economic interests, it was about saving a person's life.
  • Remo Grecko on February 01 2018 said:
    "NATO’s only Muslim-majority member, was often presented as a model for the autocratic Arab Middle East by the United States"??
    Having jailed 60,000+ public service employees, replaced further 70,000+ with those with Islamic credentials during the last 12 months, detained 180 journalists in crowded cells w/o trials, suspended all constitutional rights indefinitely, stacked courts with partisan judges and denied justice to populations, jailed 12 pro-Kurdish politicians including the leader and co-leader over a year, has been on record for arming jihadis across the southern borders, attacking Kurdish regions in and outside the country, hosting Hamas and Islamic Brotherhood in Istanbul whilst openly airing antisemitic and racial hate speeches through pro-Government media. I know many Arab regimes that respect human rights far more than Erdogan's Turkey. Sorry, but Turkey is no model for any society and never has been throughout its history.

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